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Comparison of Characteristics of Some Fuels

On this occasion I would like to discuss about some of the characteristics of the fuel we know it. The fuel there is a non-renewable and some are renewable. Each type of fuel has different properties, whether physical, chemical, and as a result of their use on the environment. And here are:

  • Fuel
    Chemical Structure: C4 s / d C12
    Cetane number: 5 s / d 20
    The octane number: 86 s / d 94
    The density of: 0.71 to 0.77 kg / l
    Source: Petroleum
    Heating value: 30381-34381 kJoule per liter
    Phase: Liquid
    Emissions: produce harmful exhaust
  • diesel fuel
    Chemical Structure: C10 s / d C20
    Cetane number: 40 s / d 55
    Octane number: 8 s / d 15
    Massa types: 0.832 kg / l
    Source: Petroleum
    Heating value: 35677-36235 kJoule per liter
    Phase: Liquid
    Emissions: produce harmful exhaust gas (ex .: sulfur, NOx, carbon monoxide) and solid particles.
  • biosolar
    The chemical structure: methyl esters of C16 s / d C18
    Cetane number: 46 s / d 60
    Octane number: ~ 25
    Massa types: 0.88 kg / l
    Source: soybean oil, a used cooking oil, animal fat
    Heating value: 32611-33447 kJoule per liter
    Phase: Liquid
    Emissions: produce exhaust that danger is lower than regular diesel.

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How to Calculate Boiler Efficiency

How to Calculate Boiler Efficiency

Boiler efficiency is a quantity that indicates the relationship between input energy entering the boiler with output energy produced by the boiler. However, the efficiency of the boiler can be defined in three ways:

  1. Combustion Efficiency
  2. Thermal Efficiency
  3. Fuel-Efficiency Steam (Fuel-to-Steam)

Combustion boiler efficiency generally describes the ability of a burner to burn the entire fuel into the boiler combustion chamber (furnace). The efficiency of this type is calculated from the amount of fuel that does not burn along with the amount of air combustion air (air excess). Burning boiler can be said to be efficient if there is no remaining fuel in the end outlet of boiler combustion chamber, so does the number of residual air.
To obtain high combustion efficiency, burner and boiler combustion chamber must be designed as optimal as possible. On the other hand differences in the use of fuels also affect the efficiency of combustion. It is known that liquid fuel and gas (LNG and HSD) produce higher combustion efficiency than solid fuels such as coal.

The only difficult thing in calculating the combustion efficiency is how to pursuit the optimal number. Combustion efficiency is characterized by the overall fuel burning in the combustion chamber. While the control parameters are used to ensure the overall fuel burning, is the amount of air combustion (air excess) coming out through the stack. The more the amount of air excess coming out through the chimney, then the more likely the amount of unburned fuel can pass through the chimney. But you should remember that the more the amount of excess water passing through the chimney, the amount of heat energy escaping the rest of airborne is also growing. Therefore there is an optimum number of excess amounts of air, so that the boiler combustion efficiency can obtain the most optimal number.

Appears in the graph illustration above that the higher the amount of air (oxygen) passing through the stack, the smaller amount of fuel including carbon monoxide burned imperfectly. But as we have discussed above, the higher the amount of air excess, so the combustion efficiency chart is going to go back down, since the heat energy was coming away with the rest of the air. Then certainly there is an optimum value of the air excess to obtain the best combustion efficiency. As an illustration, the optimum value of air excess to the combustion of natural gas is 5 to 10%, liquid fuel at the rate of 5 to 20%, and 15 to 60% for coal combustion. Continue reading

History of Invention Electron

History of Invention Electron

Until now, there are a variety of subatomic particles that have been discovered by scientists. However, the discovery of the electron is considered to be an important chapter in the history of the study of subatomic particles. Even now, when we realized there were nearly 70 parts or more atoms, the discovery of the electron, proton and neutron, regarded as the foundation for further research into subatomic particles.

Electrons can not be found for granted. There are several scientists whose work is a pioneer in the discovery of the electron. Here are four scientists who played a phenomenal role in laying the discovery of the electron.

1. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf

In 1869, a German physicist, John Wilhelm Hittorf through research on electrical conductivity in a gas cylinder found that the strong light emitted from the cathode plate depends on the gas pressure.

2. Eugen Goldstein

In 1876, German physicist discovered that the light emitted from the light on previous experiments performed by John Wilhelm cast a shadow if an object is placed behind him. He was named as the cathode-ray beam.

3. William Crookes

In the 1870s, English physicist and chemist William Crookes makes cathode ray tube first to trigger the development of the theory for the existence of negatively charged particles in the beam being deflected from the anode to the cathode.

4. Arthur Schuster

The German-born British physicist continue work Crooke and more convinced that cathode rays have negatively charged particles. Continue reading

Know the History of X-ray scanning

Know the History of X-ray scanning

The ability to see through a variety of objects has long been a dream of various people. The dream became a reality after the discovery of X-ray machines are mainly used in medical applications. X-ray machine has undoubtedly saved many people with health problems are impossible to detect without the presence of this machine.

X-rays are actually an electromagnetic radiation carries energy, which is absorbed by some substances but not by other substances. One example is the use of X-rays to diagnose a fracture. In this procedure, the X-ray radiation is projected on the body of fractures. X-ray machines will fire photons that penetrate the body and partly absorbed by the bone. Photons that are not absorbed then caught on film that shows images and their bones broken or cracked happened.

In addition to the health sector, the X-ray scanning is also widely used in other fields such as to scan the luggage of passengers at the airport, or search for dangerous objects hidden like bombs or firearms.In November 1895, Wilhelm Rontgen, a German professor of physics discovered X-rays in examining the Crookes tube (tube containing gas to study the electron). Inadvertently, after wrapping a thin tube with black cardboard, he saw that some light make it through the cardboard. Upon further investigation, Rontgen discovered that these rays can pass through paper, books, and even his wife’s hand.

Images produced from bones of her hand printed complete with a ring she was wearing. This photo is credited as an X-ray image of the first part of the human body. Since then, the X-ray technology is growing. Two scientists who made a large contribution in the development of X-ray is Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison that makes scanning X-rays into a standard procedure in modern hospitals.

In the early 1920s, it was realized that the use of Crookes tubes can not be relied upon again. To generate a current, the tube should be partially filled with a gas, which would be absorbed by the glass and eventually lead to the emission of X-rays that are not optimal. Crookes tube was also considered inefficient because it must always be replaced after a fire. This condition then encourages the Coolidge tube that uses a filament of tungsten and heated by an electric current. Coolidge tube is much more efficient than the Crookes tube and is still used in modern medicine and is the basis for most of the X-ray machine at the moment.

Being one of the most useful tools in the field of health, radiologist using a scanning X-rays to produce images of internal structures of the body of the patient. This allows various diagnoses such as broken bones, looking for the possibility of a tumor, and even saw the gastrointestinal tract can be done more accurately. By using the ‘space ion’ located between the patient and X-ray film, radiologists can adjust the amount of emitted radiation exposure to the patient.

Various types of X-ray machines are used for different applications. For example, the X-ray machine at the airport produces a very low radiation that is safe to use. As technology advances, the X-ray procedure also progressed. In the 1980s, the technology of X-ray laser was proposed but later abandoned because of the limitations of the current technology capabilities.However, the evolving technology allows the X-ray machine the future of smaller, less dangerous, and most importantly have the ability to scan better, so the potential to save more patients.

Underground storage innovation allows a country free from dependence on fossil fuels

Underground storage innovation allows a country free from dependence on fossil fuels

A recent study shows that wind energy, water, and sunlight could theoretically generate great energy at affordable prices if energy generation combined with generous storage. Over the past few years, a professor of civil and environmental engineering has produced a series of plans that are based on processing of a variety of data through computer models. That every state in the United States were able to switch to renewable energy and fossil energy left in total!

using the data needs of a wind power plant, water, and sunlight from every state. Assessing that every state is actually able to meet its energy needs with renewable energy as long as they combine it with cheap storage. Proposed a system that relies on the ability to store energy in an effort to provide energy at any time. For example, in the summer when the sun strikes with very high intensity, humans can store solar energy collected in solar energy collectors and use it to heat the house in winter. Plans also mentioned that hydrogen can be used as an energy storage medium; excess energy will be used to create hydrogen to be stored in fuel cells.

Underground storage as an inexpensive storage solution. Scientists led the demonstration of their proposal that the Drake Landing Solar Community in Canada. There, 52 homes heated during the winter with solar energy captured in the previous summer. Underground storage is cheaper than battery storage; only takes up half the cost of storage batteries. During this time many wind turbines can not handle the sudden demand for electrical energy for storage costs of wind energy are relatively expensive. With underground storage revolution, that the future of renewable energy will dominate the world and it will have a direct impact on the reduction of air pollution significantly.

Solar Panel Technology Revolution

Solar Panel Technology Revolution

A revolution in technology alternative back unsolved. A group of mechanics and scientists have announced that they will soon be marketing a new technology in producing solar panels. The technology they create does not require a complicated way to produce solar panels, all they need is a printer! Yes, a printing machine that will quickly and cheaply can print solar panels onto the surface of any object, especially plastic! Naturally this innovation will decisively, sooner or later, push down the price of conventional solar panels are quite expensive because the manufacturing process is more complicated.

Research conducted by a combination of mechanics and scientists have been done down at least the last few years. That this new technology can easily print solar panels directly on the sheet of plastic or other material. In fact, it can also be printed directly onto electronic equipment sorts of laptops and smartphones, so they get a renewable energy source at any time.

Print it out on a plastic sheet is approximately equal to the process of printing banknotes. Connect it with other electronic equipment as well as easy as installing the battery. It’s very cheap! The interface is also quite different from the conventional silicon solar panels. Elaborating that the printed solar panels will appear transparent, thus making it very suitable to be applied to building homes and buildings. The next task is to improve the efficiency of the panel. Should be able to create a ‘printing ink’ which is able to absorb more solar energy.

Motorcycles Results 3D Printing that can be driven at a price of € 50,000


Many who thought that printing three-dimensional or 3D printing is limited to print a frame or bodyparts for medicalpurposes, but the 3D printing technology is now growing because the technology is able to print a motorcycle.

The motors are three-dimensionally molded the present thanks to Airbus, a subsidiary APWorks who successfully made the world’s first motorcycleproduced using 3D printing. But if the statement that made motorcycles APWorks was the first in the world?

Because motorcycles are printed using a 3D printing is something new, naturally when it was called the first. But actually at the beginning of this year, a man managed to scoreHonda CB500 motorcycle use 3D printing in 1972, but it was only a replica of which can not function like a real motorcycle.

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SuiteCRM Integration to Provide Live Chat Tool Application on Your Webpage

It is true that there are so many awesome things that can be enjoyed if we are dealing with online transaction. Let’s just say that you are trying to purchase some items by means of online. You will realize that it is so convenient. You don’t even need to go anywhere. As long as you have got internet connection and the right device at home, you can even make the purchase from your home. This fact alone has become a great breakthrough. Once the transaction is completed, you will need to wait for a while before the things you ordered or purchased are delivered to your address. And yes, we can now buy anything starting from the smaller things to the bigger ones by using online technology. What a great development indeed. Then, you should also notice how fast it is for you to deal with the transaction. Everything has been made so simple and great.

crm3However, despite the great benefits offered by online method in dealing with some transactions, there are also some flaws. One of the biggest flaws is the fact that you may not be able to talk with the sellers directly. As the potential buyers, you may want to talk for a while with the sellers. Commonly, it is done to make sure the quality of the things you are going to buy is nice and can meet with your expectations. However, since you are using online method, you may figure out that it’s quite impossible to do that because you don’t meet with the sellers directly. What you see is the web page which may be in the form of online store. Even if there’s a feature which allows you to contact the seller, you may not get immediate response. For some people, it’s quite annoying.

Now, by considering the thing mentioned before, if you are a seller, what will you do? You surely want to guarantee the satisfaction of the potential buyers, right? You want to make sure they can feel convenient when they’re shopping, right? What to do then? One of the greatest thing to do is to have SuiteCRM integration. This kind of system integration is so fantastic. Once it’s integrated to your webpage, you can have so many awesome benefits including the fact that you can have live chat tool on your webpage. Therefore, the potential buyers or customers can have live chat with you directly. You may not face the buyers directly but this kind of feature will surely take care of such flaw. You will be able to let the customers talk about everything with you directly and for your information, it is such a nice feature for the customers. You can also expect that it will give great impact to your whole business later on. Well, if your ecommerce website has not had such feature or tool, it is the time for you to get live chat tool application by integrating the system mentioned before. It’s going to be so fabulous for the future of your business.

How to Set Nice Communication with Your Buyers If You’re Running Ecommerce Business

All businessmen desire great success from their businesses. However, in reality, it’s not easy for them to get what they expect. There are too many factors which can lead to disappointment. Do you want to know some proof of the factors which can ruin your business? Well, you can take a look at the importance of communication with the customers or potential buyers. It’s true that you must maintain such nice communication with them for the sake of your business. However, what usually happens when it comes to the business is the lack of communication especially if we are talking about online business. This is totally a bad thing because there will be so many great advantages you can get if you can set such nice communication with your potential customers.

fynsisTons of benefits will be yours if you’re able to set a nice communication method with your buyers. Just put yourself in the shoes of a buyer. Don’t you think it’s going to be so pleasuring if you can have such great communication with the seller? Therefore, you will be able to figure out even further about what’s offered by the business and also the quality of the stuffs it offers. Now, the problem is related to the fact that online ecommerce method is quite vulnerable to the lack of communication between the buyer and the seller. If we are going to blame something for such situation, well, we can blame the fact that the buyer and seller don’t meet each other before they make transaction. Everything is done by using the operation of the system. The buyer checks out the webpage to see if there’s some stuff which can attract him or her to make the purchase. Once the stuff is found, the buyer add it to the cart and make the payment. The money is then transferred to the seller’s account. That’s it. It’s less humane indeed.

Some sellers try to solve such situation by adding a webpage specially designed to contact the sellers. However, normally, such solution doesn’t work immediately. It means that the buyers need to wait for a while before the sellers can respond to them. It’s not really that perfect as a solution. This kind of thing is quite troublesome as there are still many people out there who like to have such nice communication with the sellers. Having nice and convenient communication can also make it easier for the buyers to contact the sellers if there’s something wrong with the transaction. Well, the best solution for the situation mentioned above is actually to have chat tool integration with SuiteCRM. Yes, indeed, it is really true. Having live chat tool application on your website is going to solve everything.

Even though you can’t see the buyers directly, but since you can have live chat with them, you can feel like you are actually seeing the buyers face to face. The flow of communication is going to be done so smoothly. Without any of your consideration, with such feature, the whole operation of your ecommerce website is going to be improved. You’ll see how the satisfaction rate of the customers is going to be improved and it will surely improve the amount of money you can earn as well.

GeoOrbital Wheel, Bikes Juggle your usual Become Electric Bicycles


Cycling in the park with mild weather. In addition to making the body healthy, cycling can also reduce air pollution. Well but for some people, cycling is an activity that is exhausting having to pedal, especially if you want to drive at high speed.

Well for those of you who may have a notion like that, you need a tool called GeoOrbital Wheel, which is a wheel to be fitted on your bike. But this is not a bike wheel bicycle wheels unusual because it can make your regular bike into an electric bike that can walk alone, without having to pedal.

How it works Wheel GeoOrbital is driven by three motors, which are powered by a battery with a kind of artificial 36V Lithium-Ion Panasonic. For the installation itself fairly practical because it only takes less than 60 seconds and does not require assistance tools such as screwdrivers, pliers or a hammer. Oh yes distance that can be traveled by the wheel is capable of achieving 20 miles, or 32 kilometers without pedaling. But if you also pedal your bike, the distance achieved is able to touch the figure of 80 kilometers.

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